KARADERE-LETON-SANTOS MAP SECTION 5

Kumluova-Letoon-Kınık-Ksantos-Çavdır 

Before coming to Kumluova, the road goes on through the sandy land covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubberies, then goes on to the left from the location of the fountain. It is not recommended to drink from this fountain. The pathway crosses the bridge after a while and goes on towards the Kumluova – Gerenovası settlements which contain lots of greenhouses. From the road, Letton ruins can be seen. After the Letoon ruins, when going towards east, it goes on until the edge of Eşen River. It also goes on to north parallel to Eşen River. Karaköy and from the other side of the bridge Kınık settlements can be seen. This is the first settlement which contains a bank or ATM access from Fethiye on the Lycia road. Across the bridge at the left side, if one goes on upside from the asphalt road from passing in the middle of the bazaar area Xhantos ruins can be seen. After the ruins the pathway goes on parallel to the asphalt road in the forest. Lycia road signs in this area were erased. When you go on to east parallel to the asphalt road, you can see the interurban road intersection. Lycia road goes on towards across from here and goes on for a long time on asphalt road and reaches to Çavdır settlement. This road goes on from the three lane road, through the cemetery and then from a dirt road. It ascends towards the hilltop among olives at the left side of the village home. Then crossing an old bridge it leads to a village road.

Letoon: According to a story told by poet Ovidius, the city is founded in the name of Leto who got pregnant by Zeus. The oldest settlement in the city goes back to 7th century BC. Ruins and inscriptions show that this area is a religious and politic area. There are three temples side by side at the center of the ruins. The one located at the northernmost side is dedicated to Leto; the southern one is dedicated to Artemis and the southern one is dedicated to Apollo. At the southwest of these temples there is a fountain and at the east there is a church. There is a Stoa and a theatre belonging to the ancient period which is located at the partly natural slope at the north of the city. Letoon has been abandoned at 7th century AD.

Xhantos: It has been told in the famous Iliad of Homer that the Lycians have joined the Trojan War with Sarpedon from Xhantos in command. The suggestion of the name Xhantos during the Trojan War which was estimated to have been happened in 1200 BC proves that the city was present in the history scene in 1200 BC in Lycia Area. Herodotus tells that in the war against Persian commander Harpagos in 545 B.C.; people of Xhantos fought not for surrender and burn themselves with the city.

Xhantos entered into Delos Sea League in 468 B.C. and it had a fire between the years of 475-450 B.C. With the death of Alexander the Great in 333 B.C.; Xhantos was first captured by Seleukos and then Ptolemaios and later it became one of the six biggest cities of the Lycia League with its 3 vote rights. Xhantos whose name was Arnna in Lycian had become the capital city of Lycian League in 2 B.C.

The city which had seen big invasions and disasters throughout the history had been invaded by Brutus in 42 B.C. who then destroyed the Lycia acropolis. People of Xhantos were committed suicide so as to not to surrender to Brutus. Just a couple of years later Marcus Antonius built Xhantos from scratch in order to mend the wounds opened by Brutus and Roman period in the city has passed in wealth and prosperity. The earthquake of 141 had caused damage in the city. Opramoas of Rhodiapolis has helped this city as he helped lots of other but the city could not be able to reach its old resplendent days. In the Byzantine period it has become a center of bishopric and then left when the Arabian raids started. Xhantos was first discovered by Ch. Fellows in 1838 and he then dismantled all the relief and big architectural parts in the city and moved them to London from Patara with a warship. Today there are a lot of finds taken from there in the Lycia Hall of British museum. When going up to the Xhantos ancient city which is located in Kınık; you can pass near the city gate which was constructed in Hellenistic period. The remains just over the gate are the remains of the gate which was made in memory of Vespasianus; a roman emperor reigned between the years of 69-79. What remains from the Nereids monument which was dismantled and taken to London by Sir Charles Fellows can be seen at the right of the road. 10. The monument which is 15x68m size and 5.15m in height is made as the tomb of King Arbinas in around 380 B.C.

The mausoleum had set up on a high pedestal. In the underside of the mausoleum there are two rows of reliefs depicting a war scene and above the architectural parts on it, there is a triangle pediment which was held by four pillars. There are reliefs reflecting the war scenes placed in the pediment section. Since there is statues of Nereids which were sea nymphs between the pillars of the mausoleum this mausoleum was called “Monument of Nereids”. The Hellenistic parapets which were built in ancient times and supported by towers surround the Xhantos ancient city. Ancient Theater is located in acropolis. The theatre which was constructed in the Hellenistic period and renewed in Roman period has vaulted entrances in east and west sides. The theatre which has a semi-circle orchestra and an ornate scenery building is for 2200 people.

Over the theatre there is a Lycian type tower tomb at 4.35m height. This tomb built in 4th century B.C. but moved here while constructing the theatre. There are three great monuments standing side by side at the west side of the theater which has the properties of Roman period and kept intact until present. One of these monuments is the Harpies monument belonging to 480 B.C. 8. This monument with the height of 87m., has been set up on a body of 5.43m height. The reliefs depicting the family of the deceased and Sirens have been taken to the British Museum today and instead there are plaster copies of them. This monument is called “Harpies Monument” due to the little female Harpies in the reliefs symbolizing the souls of dead. The monument which is possible have belonged to a king looks like it had been painted red and blue from the remaining marks. The northeast section of the Lycia acropolis is covered by a monastery which was built in Byzantium Period. One of the mosaics in the monastery depicts the famous Calydon hunt and Thetis sinking Achilles into river Styx. These works is being exhibited in Antalya Museum today.

Behind the agora belonging to the 2nd century located across the theatre, there is a 250 line inscription monument at 9.71m height written in Greek and Lycian. Names of Gergis and his son Arbinas who lived in the 5th century B.C. were mentioned in some sections of this inscription which is also called “Inscribed Stelae”.

The main street is located at the center of the town in east-west direction. There are pavements covered by porches and mosaics in 5.70m wide on the both sides of the street which is 11.85m wide. At the end of the main street there is a monumental gate belonging to Early Roman Period. It is understood from the inscription on the monumental gate which indicates that one is arriving to an intersection that this is dedicated to the deified Tetrarchos and built in the second half of the 4th century. The upper agora is located at the south of the main street. This agora creates a border with both Main Street and the street reaching south. Agora is covered with porches in every direction and the square is covered with calcer tiles. There is a Byzantine basilica belonging to 5th century with its floor and narthex covered with mosaics. When continued towards east “Dancers Sarcophagus” can be seen. On the longer sides of the sarcophagus there are depictions of war and hunt. On either narrower sides of the lid there are depictions of dancers dancing.
When arrived to the necropolis area from an opening on the parapets there are lots of sarcophaguses and home tombs on the rocks. The lion tomb and merihi monument are the two most popular tombs in here. On the lid of the Merihi sarcophagus which was taken to British Museum in 1840 by Ch. Fellows, the name “Merihi” is mentioned and on the both sides of the lid there are people fighting against Chimaera monster on a chariot drawn by four horses.

The most interesting of the four sarcophagus monument you can see when you enter into the parapets near Merihi sarcophagus is the Lycia tower tomb. Payava monument which is located next to this tower tomb has been taken to British Museum by Ch. Fellows. On the one side of this monument there is an admission depiction and on it there is a two line Lycian inscription mentioning the Satrap of Persia Autophradates and on the other side there is a war depiction and on the upper section of the relief there is an inscription in one line in Lycian informing that this monument had been done by Payava.
The water from Xanthos has been brought near to the city via aqueducts which are 15km long from Çay village and then distributed from here. Today these aqueducts can be followed up for 7km as far as İslamlar village. Soil pipes which brought water to the Lycia acropolis can also still be seen.

This information has been compiled by Antalya Culture and Natural Heritage Preservation Board.